Anglu filologijos baigiamojo egzamino atsakymai
Anglų konspektas. I. Phonetics and phonology. The phoneme, its aspects. Allophony the principles. The syllable, its components. Theories of syllable formation and division. Word accent, its nature. The incidence of word accent in english the recessive and rhythmic tendencies. Intonation, its definition and the main functions. The aspects of connected speech assimilation, accommodation, elision and linking. Lexical stylistic devices and their functions in fiction. Syntactical stylistic devices and expressive means and their function in fiction. Style, register and genre similarities and differences. Lexicology. Systematic character of the english vocabulary antonyms, synonyms, homonyms. Polysemy of the word. Causes, nature and result of semantic change of the english words. The morphemic structure of the english word. Classification of morphemes. Word-building in modern english. The peculiarities of the category of case and number of the noun. Grammar theory. The peculiarities of the category of gender of the noun. The category of determination and its realization in english. Non-finite forms of the verb. The category of person and number of the verb. The category of voice and mood of the verb. The adjective syntactic, morphological and semantic characteristics. Isomorphic and allomorphic features of word building in english and lithuanian. contrastive studies. Isomorphic and allomorphic features of the noun categories in english and lithuanian. Isomorphic and allomorphic features of the verb categories in english and lithuanian. History of the english language. Linguistic change as a process and as a result. Causes and effects of linguistic changes. Germanic features of modern english. Historically grounded account for the english irregular grammatical forms. English analytical verbal forms from the historical perspective.
In human language, a phoneme is the smallest unit of speech that distinguishes meaning. Phonemes are not the physical segments themselves, but, in theoretical terms, cognitive abstractions or categorizations of them. A phoneme is a class of speech sounds that are identified by native speakers as the same sound. A phoneme consists of different allophones depending on the place of a phoneme towards other sounds. An example of a phoneme is the /t/ sound in the words tip, stand, water, and cat. These instances of /t/ are considered to fall under the same sound category despite the fact that in each word they are pronounced somewhat differently. The difference may not even be audible to native speakers, or the audible differences not perceived. That is, a phoneme may encompass several recognizably different speech sounds, called phones. In our example, the /t/ in tip is aspirated, [tʰ], while the /t/ in stand is not, [t].