Anglų filologijos Leksikologijos egzamino atsakymai
Questions for the examination Lexicology. Lexicology the object and objectives. Relations to other branches of linguistics. Main branches of lexicology. The vocabulary. Systematic character of the vocabulary. Paradigmatic and syntagmatic levels. The word function , form and meaning. Phonetic , morphological word and lexeme. The word. Or its meaning. Phonological word. Word form morphological word. A study of meaning. System of meaning. Types of word meaning. Lexical meaning. Lexical meaning is pointing at the things , phenomena , qualities in reality. Denotative meaning names for the listener objects spoken about , it classifies our experience. Connotative meaning renders speaker’s feelings and deals with pragmatic effect the word has upon the listener. Semantic structure of the word. Referential and functional approach towards word meaning. Ogden and Richards’s semantic triangle. Referential approach. The aspect or thing of reality to which the linguistic sign refers thing meant. Functional approach. Polysemy of the word. Relations between meanings of a polysemantic word. The notion of polysemy. Polysemy. Semantic Structure of the Word. Dull , adj. Extralinguistic causes of semantic change they related to social , political , economic , cultural and technical change. Tenor , vehicle and ground. Types of similarity. Types of the relations of contiguity. The Result Specialization. Amelioration and pejoration.
The term lexicology was coined on the basis of two Greek words: lexis – word, speech, logos – study, knowledge, science.
The central notion in this area of study is the WORD and its two facets – form and meaning. Most words are decinposable into smaller meaningful units, which are called MORPHEMES. Some morphemes tend to coincide with words, but very many do not. On the other hand, words make up larger units, like collocations, phrases, idioms and others, broadly referred to as word groups.
As a study of the vocabulary, lexicology focuses on the word. The morpheme as the word‘s constituent and the word group as consisting of words, are also within the scope of lexicology to the extent that they help understand and systematize our knowledge about words.
Each of the three terms, the word, the morpheme and the word group, is often used in other fields of language study. For example the word is employed in many areas of language study from phonetics and phonology to grammar to semantics to discourse. Ine each of these areas it has its own role to perform. The morpheme seems to be no less important. For example, inflectional morphology, one branch of grammar, makes extensive use of the term MORPHEME in identifying word classes or their features. The notion of word groups, or phrases, or collocations, or combinations, or any other competing terms referring to several words used together are paramount for studying how words are put together. This is ususally treated in the framework of syntax, the other branch of grammar.
Inflectional morphology – focuses on the study of word classes.
Lexical semantics – focuses on meaning and deals with vocabulary (includes the notion and the structure of meaning, meaning study along the syntagmatic and paradigmatic axis, some aspects of the diachronic study and vocabulary variation).
systematic description the vocabulary in respect to its origin, development, current usage and the sources of growth of the vocabulary;
Lexicology is mainly concerned with the study of words and vocabulary. In vocabulary-related linguistic studies, vocabulary is often described as systematic. It is generally agreed that a system is ‘an orderly complex of elements and patterns constituting a functioning whole’ (McArthur). The most general notions defining the relations between words were introduced by the Swiss scholar Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913) and since then have been traditionally known as SYNTAGMATIC and PARADIGMATIC.
Syntagmatic relations join several language elements into a line, or sting. They are usually spoken or written meaningful linguistic elements, such as words, phrases and sentences. For example, the sounds and graphemes /p/, /e/ and /t/ are joined into the English words pet; the sound and graphemes /b/, /e/ and /t/ are joined into the word bet. Syntagmatic relations can be established at any level of analysis. They help produce meaningful wholes in any language.
Paradigmatic, or vertical, relations help establish a pattern between the linguistic units. One of the best known tests to identify this type of relationship is the substitutional test. Thus in the words pit, bit, kit the first consonants are related paradigmatically: p, b and k, as they all can substitute one another before the word pet.