Anglų filologijos Leksikologijos egzamino trumpi atsakymai
Paradigm can be based on. Lexical field. Word possesses. Features of the word. Lexical units. Meaning of the word can be. Denotative meaning. Connotative meaning. Connotations can be. Ogden’s and Richard’s semantic triangle. Monosemantic words. Polysemantic words. Meaning can be. Causes linguistic. Causes extra linguistic defined by social change. Componential analysis. A marker. A distinguisher. Context can be. Words different in sound and from , but identical or similar in meaning. Antonyms can be. Homonyms can be. Idioms can be. Native vocabulary. Native words describe. Latin words. Scandinavian words. Greek words. French words. A dictionary. Dictionaries can be. Lexicographical definitions can be. Classification by roles. Classification by homonymy. Classification by origin. Classification criteria. Lexical meanings. Functional meanings. Unique morphemes. Pseudo morphemes. There are two ways. Words can be built. Composition Compounding. Back formation. Valency of the base. There are. Valency also depends on semantic properties. Patterns of conversion. A conversion pair has phonetic , semantic , morphological and syntactic properties. Motivating member. Motivated member. Criteria of identification of motivating and motivated members. The criteria of distinction PI and PII from participial adjective. Classification criteria of proper compounds. Patterns of derivative compounds. The aim. Unit of analysis.
Paradigm – a group of words related according to some common features (to be-is-are-was-were-been-being).
Similarity of grammatical features (noun paradigm);
Valency – ability to join other words – is realized at the syntagmatic level (sentence level).
Morpheme – Word – Paradigm – Field – System
The word: function, form and meaning.
Word possesses: form (graphical and phonetic realisation) and content (meaning).
Different syntactic functions (role in sentence);
Can signal various meanings (water-to water);
Lexical units: morpheme, word, set expression.
Grammatical meaning – its belonging to a particular lexico-grammatical class of words and having a particular grammatical employment (part of speech);
Lexical meaning – indicating the things, phenomena, qualities in reality. Lexical meaning is unique;
Changing of the meaning of the word: causes (linguistic and extra-linguistic), nature (metaphorical and metonymical) and the result (amelioration, degradation, widening, narrowing).
Causes (extra-linguistic) (defined by social change):
Context – minimum linguistic environment which can help to render the meaning of a particular word or utterance.
Synonymy. Classification of synonyms. Euphemisms. Hyperonyms and hyponyms.
Idiographic (different in shades of meaning);
Contextual (words become synonymic in a certain context);
Euphemism – a more polite and nicer way of saying the same thing.
Hyperonym – wider notion, name of a group of words (animal – dog, cat);
Hyponym – narrower notion of a group, i.e. name of species (cat – animal);
Derivational (are built with the help of prefixes and suffixes);
Homonymy: homonyms, homophones, homographs. Sources of homonyms.
Homonym – word which is identical in sound or spelling.
Full homonyms (identical in sound and spelling) (light – light);
Homophones (identical in sound only) (here – hear);
Idiom – phraseological unit, which consist of two or more syntactically related words having a specialized meaning as a unit.