Anglų esė. Book smugglers were people who transported Lithuanian language books printed in the Latin alphabet into Lithuanian-speaking areas of the Russian Empire, ignoring a ban on such materials in force from 1863-64 to The book smugglers became a symbol of Lithuanians' resistance to Russification. In 1867 The bishop Motiejus Valančius set up the first book smuglers organisation. He was speaking out loudly on the subject, saying the Russian alphabet wasn't appropriate for Lithuanian. A number of others secret organizations distributed the books throughout Lithuania,including Teisybė, Prievarta, Lizdas, Spindulys, Žvaigždė and others. When caught, the book smugglers were punished by fines, banishment, and exile, including deportation to Siberia.