Teisės aprašymas. Court systems. Wordlist. The court system of england and wales. Criminal Cases. Civil cases.
Civil litigation, which typically involves disputes over contract breaches, land disputes and torts, is typically commenced by a claimant (formerly a plaintiff), a private person or company or a public authority. The burden of proof falls entirely on the claimant who has to prove the liability of the defendant on the balance of probabilities. The choice of court depends in most cases on the value of the claim. Claims of lesser value, divorce and bankruptcy matters will start in a County Court. Relatively small claims (less than about £3,000) can be handled by a Small Claims Procedure involving a quick hearing before a District Judge, often without lawyers being present. The parties can however appeal to a Circuit Judge who also deals with full County Court trials. More substantial civil claims (over around £25,000) are heard in the High Court. The action is begun by a writ, which is accompanied by a statement of claim in which the details of the legal dispute are set out.