Cybernetic security of substation
Introduction. Definitions and Terminology. Threats to the Security of Substation Systems. Substation Automation (SA) System Vulnerabilities. Slow Processors with Stringent Real-Time Constraints. Real-Time Operating Systems that Preclude Security. Insecure Communications Media. Open Protocols. Lack of Authentication. Low Priority for Cyber Security. Lack of Centralized System Administration. Large Numbers of Remote Devices. Measures to Enhance Cyber Security. Protecting Substation Systems against Cyber Intrusion. Cyber Intrusion from Inside the Corporate Network. Cyber Intrusion from Outside the Corporate Network. SCADA Communication Lines. Dial-Up Lines to IEDs. Detecting Cyber Intrusion. Responding to Cyber Intrusion. Devising a Security Policy. Future Measures. Encryption. Secure Real-Time Operating Systems. Test Beds. Incident Reporting Sites. Intrusion Detection and Firewalls. Secure Recovery. Developing Standards. Security Policies and Procedures. Conclusions. References.