Deixis in Dialogue and Monologue
Filologijos kursinis darbas. Deixis in dialogue and monologue. Introduction. Deixis and its functions in language. Speech, speech act and locutionary act. Cohesion and coherence. Deixis and its functions in speech. Personal deixis. Spatial deixis. Temporal deixis. Social deixis. Discourse deixis. The study of discourse deixis according to its use in dialogue and monologue. The study of discourse deixis in the play “buried child” by sam shepard. The study of discourse deixis in a scientific article. The use of discourse deixis in dialogue and monologue compared. Conclusion. Summary. Bibliography and references.
Language is one of the phenomena, which has always been rising interest of people and especially of scholars. At different times, different features of language have struck people as particularly significant, typical or worthy of attention. Smith and wilson (1979) state that any system as complex as a human language is bound to lend itself to a variety of independent approaches.
Speakers of any language can easily tell if the passage they hear or read forms a unified whole or is just a collection of unrelated sentences. To quote halliday and hasan (1976): the word text is used in linguistics to refer to any passage, spoken or written, of whatever length, that does form a unified whole. quirk, greenbaum, leech and svartvik (1985) state that a text is a semantic and even a pragmatic unit which may be spoken or written, produced by a single speaker or by several speakers engaged in a conversation. On the other hand, stubbs (1995) uses the term text to talk of written text versus spoken discourse. For him the term discourse often implies interactive discourse, whereas text implies non-interactive monologue, whether intended to be spoken or written (stubbs, 1995, 30). However, greenbaum and quirk (1985) support the idea that a text is a stretch of language that makes coherent sense in the context of its use and it may be both spoken and written. This statement echoes the ideas of halliday and hasan (1976) who said that a text is a unit of language in use and it may be spoken or written, prose or verse, dialogue or monologue.
The title of this thesis establishes the boundaries within which the research of this thesis will be carried out, namely dialogue and monologue. Traditionally, the term dialogue is used to speak of such type of communication, when two participants are involved. Moreover, this term presupposes the spoken form of discourse. On the other hand, the term monologue is usually used to speak rather of written than spoken discourse produced by only one participant. Thus, it could be said that a factor which fundamentally influences the linguistic character of a use of a language is the number of participants involved in the activity. Theoretically, there is monologue, in which only one person is involved in the linguistic act, and there is a dialogue, in which two people are involved. (crystal, 1995: 294) people also expect that there is a close correspondence of dialogue and monologue with spoken and written categories of medium. Such traditional approach to dialogue and monologue is deeply rooted, nevertheless, crystal (1995) suggests having a deeper look into the problem of them.