Karl Marx. Friedrich Engels. Die heilige Familie. Communist Correspondence Committee. The Communist Manifesto. Historical materialism. Division of labor. Primitive Communism. Slave Society. The labor theory of value. Theory of value appeared in his book capital. Exchange value. Surplus value. Petit bourgeoisie. Peasantry and farmers. Productive activity. The product of that activity. Other human. Hegel's philosophy. Ludwig Feuerbach. The classical political economy of Adam Smith and David Ricardo. French socialist thought. Socialist critiques. Anarchist and libertarian critiques. Economic critiques. The Austrian School of economics. Carl Menger. Book Principles of Economics. British economist Alfred Marshall. The Law of Supply and Demand. John Maynard Keynes.
Marxism emerged in the mid-nineteenth century, and this movement according to , Lenin famous words, emerged from the three sources: British political economy, French Socialism and German idealist philosophy.
For better understanding of Marxism, we need to know who Karl Marx and Engels were and how they created this movement.
We know that Marxism is movement and this movement influenced different aspects of our history.
He argued that the capitalism creates the relations of production´s conflict and private property, so it´s necessary to abolish it, and for that Marx defend the proletarian revolution; why it´s proletarian, because he considered that capitalism with their bourgeois alienated proletarian, people who just live and work because they need money, while the bourgeois have a power and stability.
Marx´s argued that this revolution could provide a society without any kind of social class, where everybody lives in equality.
As we have seen, Marxism is an historical movement and this movement have affected in different areas and in different ways. Thus, we need to know different concepts of Marxism.
Moreover, Marx divided human society, means production, in two: base(the forces and relations of production) and superstructure (aspects of a society includes its culture, institutions, political power structures, roles, rituals, and state). A conflict between the development of material productive forces and the relations of production provokes social revolutions, thus, the resultant changes to the economic base will lead to the transformation of the superstructure.
-Feudalism: aristocrats are the ruling class; merchants evolve into capitalists.
In his theory of Alienation, Marx argued that the workers in capitalist society aren´t owner of the means which they use in their work. The owners of the means are the capitalist, for this reason workers must sell their “labor power” for a wage.
Thus, Marx considered that the capitalist society is a relation of alienation (Alienation is the estrangement of people from their humanity)in four aspects:
This alienation caused an individual physically weakened, mentally confused and mystified, isolated and virtually powerless. And also lose the control and the understanding of the worker.
It´s important to know that Marx´s thought have been derived from many thinkers, the most important:
But how was the Marxism evolution? And is still present in our society?
When you start to study about Marxism and their theory, we can make a mistake and to think that Marxism is equal to Anarchism because both of them want to abolish the capitalism´s regime and to create society without any kind of classes; but the main difference between these theories is that the Anarchism´s aim is to abolish a government and create free society.
In conclusion, Marxism was a revolutionary movement, it was revolutionary because the main goal was the revolution of proletarians in order to break down the alienation. When the class- working was concerned with this alienation, then it will be possible to abolish Capitalism and be free. Besides, in this society, a bit “utopian”, there aren´t inequalities, everybody has the same rights and power.