Elektronikos referatas. What is a processor? A microprocessor, also known as a cpu or central processing unit, is a complete computation engine that is fabricated on a single chip. This processor consists of thousands or even millions of transistors, which are connected with each other. All transistors work together to keep information in ourselves and work with it. Thus a microprocessor can perform many useful operations.

The main computer‘s processors manufacturers are intel corporation (about 80% of market) and amd (about 20% of the market). The remaining manufacturers are only around 2% of the market.

The first intel processor was 4004, which appeared in 1971, it consisted of 2300 transistors and was 4-bit. His tactical frequency was 108 khz and it was able to manage a very small 640-byte memory. By comparison, the current processor is about 40 million transistors, the speed to 4000 mhz and the memory it can manage up to 100 tb. The first processor was used not for pc, but for calculators. Strange that if quite expensive processor is found in each calculator. In 1972, intel released a processor 8008, which was 8-bit and it has somehow adapted iu printing machine, which has been more like a computer. Relatively good progress the company made in 1974, spent 8080 processor, which was built in the first personal computer - altair. This was the beginning of the intel prosperity. It has became a serious competitor to the other processor manufacturers, such as at the time well known company like motorola. Entirely clear why these processors were so popular, during years (1972-1974) the cpu speed increased from 108 khz to 2mhz, it was almost 20 times, not to mention that the managed memory jumped from 640 bytes to 64 kb. In march of 1976 was presented less heard 8085 processor, the speed was already mhz. The processing parameters were almost similar to the 8086 processor, causing the personal computer revolution in the world. This processor has been x86 processors.

What is the x86 architecture? This is a set of operations soldered into processor. It would be strange if a processor worked using the composition of teams. So, the most necessary commands were collected and soldered into the processor. Clearly, these commands might be carried out and using a simple composition commands, but it would work several times slower. Besides a x86 there is risc architecture implemented in mac computers. So for that reason it is not that simple to run mac programs with x86 pc and vice versa. For this reason, the program must be transformed. X86 team accelerated computer‘s work with memory, disks, graphics cards, enabled better use of computer‘s resources. Architectures example could be an mmx or 3dnow technology. Both of these technologies are more x86-based team, allowing a faster running on games. The game compiled to mmx technology would not expose on the cpu which they do not have.

So we already know that the first x86 processor was 8086th. Almost parallel with him, went out and another processor 8088th. Inside they were identical.

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