Chemijos referatas. Mooring. When approaching a berth ships must proceed at slow speed. On deck, heaving lines and mooring ropes, as well as fenders, should be ready for use. The anchors must be ready to let go. Towing. Ships may need towing in a number of cases. When in port, tugs may be required to take ships to or from their berths. Sometimes it may be necessary to shift the ship from one berth to another and the port tug is usually ordered to do this job. Medical inspection of the ship. On the arrival of a ship in a foreign port the first person who comes aboard is the medical officer of the port. In some ports medical officers are sometimes called health officers.
When approaching a berth ships must proceed at slow speed. The anchors must be ready to let go.
At an appropriate distance from the berth the engine is stopped and the ship's headway is used to bring her alongside the wharf. This headway should be just enough to keep the ship moving ahead without losing steerage-way. If a ship has too much headway it should be stopped by backing the ship with the engine or by letting the anchor go. As a matter of fact, only the off-shore anchor is- dropped and then a heaving line is passed ashore. Ahead-rope, a bow spring and two breast lines are run out from the ship and secured to bollards ashore.
Working on these lines, as well as on the stern rope and stern spring which are also run out in due time, the ship is hove into her berth and made fast.
After the ship, is secured in her berth, rat-guards should be placed on all the lines. For permanent moorings wire ropes are preferred to ordinary fiber ropes.
All the mooring lines should be constantly watched, as the change of weather or rise and fall of tide can make the, lines too taut or too slack and this will necessitate from time to time veering them in or out. In stoships may need towing in a number of cases.
It may also happen that the ship will need dry docking for cleaning the bottom and repairs to the hull. A tug-boat will then be required to maneuver the ship into the dock.
A ship may become disabled at sea and in this case she will need some other vessel or a tug to tow her to the nearest port.
Big ships require big tow-lines. Most modern vessels are provided with steel wire tow-lines of sufficient length.