Ekonomikos referatas. Introduction. What is externalities ? Negative externality – problem and solutions. Conclusion. References.
Each person daily is touched, influenced or affected by certain lifestyle factors. one caused by nature, other people themselves. Sometimes even suspecting they are caused by certain factors which can affect other people. Certain factors influencing other people, and causing some problems are called externalities. Costs externalities are benefits or not transmited through the prices that other parties than Those Involved in the transaction. The first party bears no Costs for Their impact on society, while the second party Receives no benefits from being impact. They all face every day. Probably the greatest impact on our lives are those factors that could adversely affect us. The aim and purpose of this essay is to :
Explain what types of externalities are, and give examples, which could help to understand external factors more clearly.
Choose a problem which could the the negative externality and try to solve it by choosing sertain right solutions.
Voluntary exchange would only take place if both parties perceive at their better offer. Sometimes these exchange result in spillovers and it is called spillover externalities. Externalities are costs or benefits not transmited through prices to other parties than those involved in the transaction. The first party bears no costs for their impact on society, while the second party receives no benefits from being impact. This occurs when marginal social cost is greater than marginal private cost. (MSC > MPC). Externalities are divided into two categories – positive and negative. If spillovers are beneficial, we call them positive externalities and if they are costly – than they are negative.
Evolving this topic, it is also important to know that there two types of negative externalities – production and consumption. The difderence of these two is not very big, but it still is. The first one – negative externality production apears, when a firm‘s production reduces the well being of others who are not compensated by a firm.