Political Corruption in Baltic States Lithuanian Case
Anglų referatas. Political corruption in baltic states: lithuanian case. Introduction. Corruption in lithuania. The conclusion. Vocabulary. Like any complicated social phenomenon, corruption does not have a well-established, canonical definition. Nevertheless, the authors cannot avoid explaining the meaning of the term "corruption" when starting a serious discussion on the subject. This is not an academic problem, for it is dictated by the need to be understood properly by the readers. In this report, we shall talk mainly about "state" corruption, implying that one of the parties is always a person who is either fulfilling the duties of a public servant, or exercising authority delegated to him by voters or in some other way. Ignoring certain terminological inconsistency, we shall use the following expressions as synonyms in this context; "public servant", "official", and "functionary". State corruption exists insofar as an official has an opportunity to manage resources not owned by him by making or not making specific decisions. Such resources may include budget money, state or communal property, state purchase orders or privileges, etc. Collecting fines, tax or other payments prescribed by the law, the official also controls the resources that he does not own. If the fine (levy) is legal, then its owner is the state's treasury, otherwise, the owner is the person who is being shaken down by the official.