Geografijos skaidrės. Anti-globalization ideas. World’s largest cities. What is urban? Urban growth. Demographic transition. Urbanization. Why move to cities? Environment of cities. Urban sprawl. Environmental problems. Urban heat island profile. Urban pollution.
Industrial Birth/fertility rates fall, death rate low (life expectancy high) Increasing opportunity for women Postindustrial Birth and death rates low Near full employment for men & women Available birth control (children expensive = child care, inconvenient) Population grows slowly or declines.
Cities are not self-sustaining. Import food, water, energy, materials, etc. Export solid waste, sewage (or sludge), gases (air pollution).
“Push” from rural areas lack of land (response to primogeniture, response to division of estate) immigration to American colonies ( USA), Australia, New Zealand escape constraints of village/small town poverty lack of jobs in agriculture Famine war.
Transportation commute to jobs: cars, buses, commuter trains import resources: trucks distribute services: small trucks, vans export industrial products: trucks export wastes: trucks, barges, etc.
Who controls growth of cities? Land-use planning Goals of planners, developers, local government “Growth,” prosperity, tax income. City vs suburbs.
Zoning Plan for development, often controlled by developers Zone some businesses (e.g. farms) out of existence Develop over sensitive habitats (e.g. wetlands).
Zoning “Smart Growth” = Ecological land-use planning Development along bus & rail lines Preserve open space Farms Wildlife habitat.