Structure of the respiratory system
Anglų referatas. Structure of the respiratory system. Functions of the respiratory system are. Inspired Air. Expired Air. Components of the respiratory System (West, S 2007). The act of breathing consists of two phases, inspiration and expiration. Central Control (Waugh & Grant 2004). Conditions necessary for gas exchange. The conditions required for effective gaseous exchange. CNS and regulation of breathing system. Definition. Description (Adams, Francis ). Function (Givens P. & Reiss M. ). Components of plasma & their function. Structure of RBC & function (Jones M; Fosberry R & Taylor D. ). Transport of oxygen & carbon dioxide by the blood. Oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve. References.
The major centres providing the information required by the respiratory control centre to regulate breathing are the following:
Brain. Breathing can also be voluntary, that is influenced by other parts of the brain, especially the cerebral cortex, the part of the brain where thought processes reside and are responsible for willful action. We can all consciously breathe more deeply and more rapidly (hyperventilation), as for example, before starting heavy exercise. Strong emotions can also result in hyperventilation.
Respiration humans, breathing, mean the inhaling of oxygen-containing air and the exhaling of carbon dioxide-containing air. It can also refer to the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. The term respiration has yet another meaning in biochemistry, where it refers to the complex chemical reactions occurring in the body, called oxidation reactions, by which chemical substances transfer electrons and convert energy into forms required to maintain life.
2.2 structure of RBC & function (Jones M; Fosberry R & Taylor D. 2002)
2.3 transport of oxygen & carbon dioxide by the blood
The curve shows that: (Givens P. & Reiss M. 1996)
Carbon dioxide pressure is higher in the tissue cells than it is in the blood found in the tiny blood vessels called capillaries that weave their way around the cells, and so carbon dioxide moves from the cells out into the blood.
Ordinarily this is a really good system: when the body is working hard, the cells need more oxygen that they keep using up, and because the cells are burning all this oxygen they are making lots of carbon dioxide that can move into the blood, ensuring more oxygen delivery...
This reliance that oxygen has on carbon dioxide for delivery to tissues is called the Bohr effect, and is mainly due to the way that carbon dioxide affects the acidity or alkalinity of the blood. When the blood is slightly more alkaline (not so much carbon dioxide), the haemoglobin clings to oxygen like a drowning man clutches to straws, and when the blood is slightly less alkaline (extra carbon dioxide in the blood), haemoglobin willingly lets oxygen go.
Adams, Francis V. The Breathing Disorders Sourcebook. Verulam Publishing Ltd, 1999.
Bailey M. & Hirst K. (2000) Advanced Modules Sciences Biology AS (2 nd edition) Collins London
Clegg C.J. (2000) Introduction to advanced Biology Murray J. London
Jones M; Fosberry R & Taylor D. (2002) Boilogy-1, Cambridge Advanced Sciences, Cambridge University
Greatrell P. Lowrie P. Tilley A. OCR Human biology AS/A2, (Series editor, Sue Hocking) Heinemann