Theta roles. The Beneficiary of an action might not always be positively affected by that action. Referring expressions. The description of a sentence is syntactic analysis. The description of a proposition is semantic analysis. Function words. Combine into phrases. One predicate. Number of arguments. A verb , an adjective , a preposition , or a noun phrase. Have different semantic functions , or roles , in the proposition. How many arguments. What roles. Weather verbs. Performance and experience verbs. Have the valency of. Effective verbs. The effect of an agent on some entity. Valency. Affective verbs. The affect the agent has on some entity , the affected. The subject Mat expresses the affected and the object the movie expresses what affects. Valency. An agent , the affected and an object that affects. Linking verbs. Link between one argument a theme and another the associate. Is like. Is for. Is with. Is about. Is theme link associate. The value of size , weight , value. Pseudo reflexive verbs. Pseudo reciprocal verbs. The relations between a verb and its arguments. Syntax semantics interface. To the policeman. From Vilnius. Under the bed. Cool breeze. Theta grid or subcategorization frame.
Inflection. Certain kinds of modifications that a sentence has. Includes: tense, aspect (are walking, have walked), modality.
A general scheme of sentence parts:
The description of a sentence is syntactic analysis. Syntactic analysis is an account of the lexemes and function words in a sentence, describing how these combine into phrases and showing the functions that these lexemes and phrases have in the sentence. Sentence functions: subject, predicate, object, complement, adverbial. E.g.
Every function word and lexeme has a syntactic function and the functions are listed in the order they have in the sentence. The predicate is always a verb.
Semantic analysis deals with meaning (proposition) and not with all the function verbs. In semantic analysis inflection is first separated (so he will send an email and he had sent an email have the same proposition).
Weather verbs. Verbs that are used to talk about the weather and have a 0 valency, i.e., do not require a referent. However, they require a ‘dummy subject ‘it’. (It is raining). (proposition actor + action).
Performance and experience verbs. Performance verbs express actions, e.g. Jack jumped high, and experience verbs express a change of condition, e.g. Jack died, the volcano erupted, he fell (proposition affected + event). They have the valency of 1.
Effective verbs. Verbs which are used in transitive sentences, have a subject and object, and tell the effect of an agent on some entity, either bringing it into existence (we create, build, make something) or putting in out of existence (kill, break). Valency 2.
Affective verbs. The verbs do not express the effect but only the affect the agent has on some entity, the affected, e.g. Mat enjoyed the movie, Helen heard a noise, I like this book. In these sentences the subject (Mat) expresses the affected and the object (the movie) expresses what affects. Valency 2.