Tipologijos egzamino konspektas
Anglų konspektas. To draw up a phonemic inventory of L1 and L. To list the phonemic variants for L1 and L. Sound in lith and engl are divided into vowels and consonants. In LT demonstrative P can be declined. When tas &ta relate back to the specific word in a previous clause or phrase they agree in gender & number with that word. E. g. jis dave man zurnala, bet ta as jau buvau perskaites. Eng. . but I had already red it. Tai is used to relate to the entire clause or phrase. e. g. inai man vakar paskambino, tai labia nudziugau. Eng. . which made me very happy.
Type is a form of universal or common linguistic phenomenon. In this case we can speak about types of sentences, collocations, syntactic relationships, etc. Syntactic relationships of words can be expressed by agreement (derinimas), government (valdymas), adjoinment (sliejimas).
On these grounds usually 3 types of languages are distinguished:
Lang is classified acc to 3 criteria: 1.genetically; 2.geographically/areally; 3.typologically. 1. It reveals coomon features of lang origin. Romans lang have one common protolang namely national Latin. Lithuan and Latvian lang-baltic lang.2. It depends on the teritory where lang originally spread. African lang spread on African continent. 3. This classificcation is based on common & different features of lang structure.
Common features which are the same for several languages can determine the type of language. For example, in Turkic (tiurku) we find the following linguistic features: singarmonism – repetition of the same vowel in the root (e.g. balalaika); monosemantic affixes – having one meaning; absence of agreement.
There are no so-called ‘pure’ types of languages, namely, languages which have only unique features.
Similarities which are found while comparing lang are called ISOMORPHIC features. Differences between lang compared are called ALLOMORPHIC features. Common features are found even in the lang whose origin is not the same. E.g: adjectival nominal group in which adj precedes a noun without any government can be found in the English,Japannesse, Chinese, Mongolian lang. These lang can e joined into a group with common characteristics: Adj+N. The Turkish lang is different from Lithuanian & English b/c the Turkish lang doesn‘t have prefexes. In this case, lexical changes are performed by suffixes. However, English & Turkish can have common feat. – namely fixed word order: English: S+P+O; Turkish:S+O+P. In Lithuanian lang we have relatively lose word order. Linguist Ckalinchka identified that there are such relations between tha lang feat:
If in particularlang there is some fact which we call A,B should also be indicated. E.g: If there is gender agreement which we can call A in Lith, Russian, German, French lang, it means that these lang have grammatical gender, which we call B.It iliustrates that linguistic phenomenon can determine the other. Common featur can be found between related& non-related lang.
Type denotes generalised form or the variety of objects. Typology is classification & analysis of objects acc to their common features. The word type can be understood in a narrow and wide sense:
1.NARROW: it is a form of linguistic phenomena. We may speak about types of sentences, sound articulation, syntactic relations, etc.
2.WIDE: it is a sum of the main lang features which are related in a particular way. When absence or presence of one feat influences absence or presence of other feat. It is accumulation of generalized feat of lang groups. Typology is a special branch of linguistics, which can be defined as a science about types of lang & about types of lang structure. The aim is grouping of the main characteristics of the lang & finding common features.