Word formation. . How do we make new words? Ways to enrich vocabulary. Word formation. Types of words. Word-formation and inflection. Formations and their bases. Stems. Types of word formation. Derivation. Derivation Derivational affixes. Derivation Derivational vs. inflectional affixes. Derivation Derivational affixes. Derivation suffixation and prefixation. Derivation Suffixation. Derivation Prefixation. Compounding. Compounding formal types of compounds. Compounding derivational compounds. Compounding classification by word class. Compounding. Conversion. Shortening. Shortening Clipping. Shortening Blending. Shortening formation of initialisms. Summing up. Literature.
Any language enriches its vocabulary in two ways: by borrowing from other languages, by forming new words using the existing resources. This lecture is about the latter way to enrich vocabulary – word formation.
Word-formation (word-building) – forming new words from existing ones by using different devices. What devices are used to form these English words? writer to enable book-shop to water SMS.
In word formation analysis, words are classified into: Root-words (simple words) – The structure of these words may be analysed only historically. Formations (complex words) – The structure of these words may be analysed synchronically. These words are formed from other words existing in the language.
Which of these words are formations and what devises are used to form them? disc, disciple, disturbance to discern, to disagree, to discover dishonest, disappointed, dispensable.
Word-formation should not be confused with inflection. Word-formation is a lexical process which actually forms a new word out of existing one. Inflection is a grammatical process which produces alternative grammatical forms - inflectional variants of the same word.
Which process (word-formation or inflection) is illustrated in these examples? rose roses strong stronger depart departure hope hopefull.
A formation is formed on the basis of another word which is called a base. A base may be composed of a root heart heart-y a root + affix hearty heart-i-ly a root + a root heartbreak heart-break-er.