Problem solving

Content. Pdca cycle. Process of problem solving. Possible definitions of “Problem”. It could be considered as. Problem recognition. conditions to consider it a problem. Fact-Based Decision Making. X. How to recognise the causes of a problem. The Iceberg idea/rule. How to use it. Brainstorming. Positive/negative forces analysis. Statement of a problem. Major symptom/cause. Repetitive “Why” analyses.

The five steps of problem solving process PDCA cycle Process of problem solving Problem meaning and problem recognition Possible definitions of “problem” Problem as an obstacle or as an opportunity Problem recognition Fact-Based Decision Making Problem Finding How to recognise the causes of a problem The Iceberg idea/rule An example of iceberg applied to problem solving How to use it... (possible and root causes) Six techniques to identify problem causes Brainstorming Positive/negative forces analysis Charting unknowns Chronological analyses Repetitive “why” analyses Cause/Effect diagram (Fishbone diagram).

1- Problem definition 2- Developing and analysing alternative solutions 3- Decision-making (choosing the alternative).

PLAN: make a theory about WHAT improvements would solve the problem (based on what the FACTS tell about the nature and reasons of the problem).

If it didn’t work, return it to the previous state and make a new theory.

DO: test the theory in a small area (group, sub-unit) of the problematic unit.

If it improved, implement the same improvement in the rest of the problematic unit and standardize it as the way to work from there on.

What is A problem? Which is THE problem?

Fact Based Decision - Making - Problem cause analyses - Status check list.

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